The immediate occasion was the French threat to northwestern Maharaja Ranjit Singh of Lahore Darbar decided to conquer the three separate States of Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh one by one. and Brevet-Major Henry [1], The treaty was executed on 16 March 1846. He proclaimed himself maharajah of the Punjab in 1801 and expanded his territories to such an extent that by 1808 he had control of an area bounded by Gujarat, Ludhiana and Multan. The Constitution of India. Treaty of Amritsar in 1846 AD. 1846. [2], Although the terms of the treaty prevented Singh from any further territorial expansion south of the Sutlej, they also permitted him complete freedom of action to the north of it. Napoleon's victories in Europe had alarmed the British, who, fearing a French attack on the country through Afghanistan, decided to win the Sikhs over to their side and sent a young officer, Charles Theophilus Metcalfe, to … Article 6 Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir. Treaty of Amritsar March 16, 1846 Legal Document No 1. The Treaty of Amritsar, executed by the British East India Company and Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu after the First Anglo-Sikh War, established the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir under the suzerainty of the British Indian Empire. On 11th March 1846 a supplementary treaty was initiated. The Treaty of Amritsar was signed on March 16, 1846 to settle a dispute over territory in Kashmir after the First Sikh War with the United Kingdom. "In consideration of the services rendered by Rajah Golab Sing of Jummoo, to the Lahore State, towards procuring the restoration of the relations of amity between the Lahore and British Governments, the Maharajah hereby agrees to recognize the Independent sovereignty of Rajah Golab Sing in such territories and districts in the hills as may be made over to the said Rajah Golab Sing, by separate Agreement between himself and the British Government, with the dependencies thereof, which may have been in the Rajah's possession since the time of the late Maharajah Khurruck Sing, and the British Government, in consideration of the good conduct of Rajah Golab Sing, also agrees to recognize his independence in such territories, and to admit him to the privileges of a separate Treaty with the British Government.". Treaty of Amritsar March 16, 1846 The treaty between the British Government on the one part and Maharajah Gulab Singh of Jammu on the other concluded on the part of the British Government by Frederick Currie, Esq. The Treaty of Amritsar of 1809 was an agreement between the British East India Company and Ranjit Singh, the Sikh leader who founded the Sikh empire.. Ranjit Singh had established a capital at Lahore in 1799 when he defeated Zaman Shah, an Afghan leader.. Raja Gulab Singh who received this State was already Prince of Jammu State which included Ladakh and Baltistan; and Jammu State was itself part of Lahore Sikh State. The Genesis Jammu and Kashmir as a State came into existence by virtue of the Treaty of Amritsar signed between Maharaja Gulab Singh (the Founder of the State) and the East-India Company in 1846. other concluded on the part of the British Government by Frederick Currie, Esq. The treaty between the British Government on the one part and Maharajah Gulab Singh of Jammu, on the other concluded on the part of the British Government by Frederick Currie, Esq; and Brevet-Major Henry Montgomery Lawrence, acting under the orders of the Rt. [3][4], https://www.britannica.com/event/Treaty-of-Amritsar, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Treaty_of_Amritsar_(1809)&oldid=966657545, Treaties of the British East India Company, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 8 July 2020, at 11:23. Article 10 The treaty between the British Government on the one part and Maharajah Gulab Singh of Jammu on the other concluded on the part of the British Government by Frederick Currie, Esq. Hon. The Treaty of Amritsar which was signed by Gulab Singh, Hardinge, Currie and Lawrence had common cause among the parties with the aim to end the Muslim rule in Jammu and Kashmir. Realising his relative military weakness, Singh conceded with the Treaty of Amritsar. and Brevet-Major Henry Montgomery Lawrence, acting under the orders of the Rt. Treaty of Amritsar. The Constitution (Application To Jammu And Kashmir) Order, 1954. Montgomery Lawrence, acting under directions of the Rt. The Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir order, 1950) Delhi 1952 Agreement. treaty of amritsar 1809 The Treaty of Amritsar of 1809 was an agreement between the British East India Company and Ranjit Singh , the Sikh leader who founded the Sikh empire. Maharaja Ranjit Singh:The Treaty of Amritsar (British and Sarkar Khalsa) In 1807, Ranjit Singh had taken over the territory of Tara Singh Gheba, who had died earlier. The limits of territories of Maharajah Gulab Singh shall not be at any time changed without concurrence The Treaty of Amritsar was a formalisation of the proposals of the Treaty of Lahore, signed to conclude the First Anglo-Sikh War of 1845-46 between the East India Company and the Sikh Empire. and Brevet-Major Henry Montgomery Lawrence, acting under the orders of the Rt. The forces of Maharaja Ranjit … The Treaty of Amritsar was signed on March 16, 1846, between the British East India Company and Gulab Singh Dogra to formalize the arrangements which were made in a peace treaty at the end of the First Anglo-Sikh War. The British Government transfers and makes over for ever in independent possession to Maharajah Gulab [5][3][4][6][7][8][9][2][10][11][12] It was a pact between Charles T. Metcalfe and Maharaja Ranjit Singh . Durbar, dated 11 March 1846. The Treaty of 1809 between Maharaja Ranjit Singh and The British East India Companywhich prevented Maharaja Ranjit Singh to expand territorial gains south of the Sutlej river, but was given complete freedom of action to the north. Maharajah Gulab Singh engages to respect in regard to the territory transferred to him, the provisions of As far back as 1868 in the book Cashmere Misgovernment, Robert Thorp stated that the people of Kashmir were sold into slavery to Gulab Singh. With the role or rather non role played by Gulab Singh he negotiated the Treaty of Amritsar on 16th March 1846 acquiring many areas of the Punjab. He had Malwa, on the south side of the Sutlej river, as his next target but the Sikh chiefs in that area appealed to the British for protection. and Brever-Major Henry Montgomery Lawrence, acting under the orders of the Rt. and Brevet-Major Henry Montgomery Lawrence, acting under the orders of the Rt. British Empire on (9 March 1846), Jammu was taken over by the British Empire on paper. The Treaty of Amritsar, executed by the British East India Company and Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu after the First Anglo-Sikh War, established the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir under the suzerainty of the British Indian Empire. Sir Henry Hardinge, G.C.B., one of her Britannic Majesty's most Honorable … TREATY OF AMRITSAR The British Government having demanded from the Lahore State, as indemnification for the expenses of the war, payment of one and a half crores of rupees; and the Lahore Government being unable to pay the whole of this sum at this time, or to give security satisfactory to the Maharaja Ranjit Singh:The Treaty of Amritsar (British and Sarkar Khalsa) In 1807, Ranjit Singh had taken over the territory of Tara Singh Gheba, who had died earlier. With the role or rather non role played by Gulab Singh he negotiated the Treaty of Amritsar on 16th March 1846 acquiring many areas of the Punjab. (six male and six female) and three pairs of Cashmere shawls. Treaty of Amritsar March 16, 1846. Maharajah Gulab Singh will pay to the British Government the sum of seventy-five lakhs of rupees The treaty settled Indo-Sikh relations for a generation. ANGLO-SIKH TREATY (AMRITSAR, 1809). The Sikhs retained the Valley until a little after Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s death in 1839. The treaty of Amritsar was signed after the Treaty of Lahore. The Amritsar Treaty preserved British supremacy over Maharaja Gulab Singh, besides demanding unconditional allegiance of the buyer to the Empire in return for this cheep dole-out. and Brever-Major Henry Montgomery Lawrence, acting under the orders of the Rt. Gulab Singh thus became the founder and first Maharaja of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K). The supplementary Articles of Agreement of 1846 had specified that the British troops would remain in Lahore until no later than the end of 1846. Then as part of the Treaty of Amritsar (1846) Maharaja Gulab Singh Jamwal agreed to serve the British Empire under Article 6: "Maharajah Gulab Singh engages for himself and heirs to join, with the whole of his Military Forces, the British troops when employed within the hills or in the territories adjoining his possessions." Sir Henry Hardinge, Governor-General, He had established a capital at Lahore in 1799 when he defeated Zaman Shah, an Afghan leader, and this emphasised his status among the Sikhs. [5][3][4][6][7][8][9][2][10][11][12][13] The Slavery Abolition Act 1833 (3 & 4 Will. Amritsar Treaty & Kashmirs’ Struggle. Hon. The high taxes to support these wars were resented by all the Kashmiris including the Hindus, Muslims and the Sikhs[5][3][4][6][7][8][9][2][10][11][12][13] And combined with the tens of thousands of trained men, coming back from the Second World War generated a highly volatile situation in 1947. that may arise between himself and the Government of Lahore or any other neighboring State, and will IV c. 73) came into force before the Treaty of Amritsar (1846) was signed (16 March 1846). been this day ratified by the seal of the Rt. Ranjit Singh (1780-1839) was a Sikh warrior who had been establishing a kingdom in what was at that time northern India. Maharajah Gulab Singh will refer to the arbitration of the British Government any disputes or question The treaty between the British Government on the one part and Maharajah Gulab Singh of Jammu on the other concluded on the part of the British Government by Frederick Currie, Esq. The Treaty of Amritsar Edit The British demanded payment of 15 million rupees [11] (one and a half crore) as reparations for the cost of the war. Hon. Sir Henry Hardinge, G.C.B., one of her (Signed) H. Hardinge (Seal) This caused Maharaja Ranjit Singh to concentrate towards the west and conquer Peshawar, Kashmir, Ladakh, and Western Tibet. The Treaty of Amritsar of 1809 was an agreement between the British East India Company and Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the Sikh leader who founded the Sikh empire. forty-six, corresponding with the seventeenth day of Rubee-ul-Awal (1262 Hijri). British troops when employed within the hills or in the territories adjoining his possessions. The treaty was signed in the city of Amritsar. supremacy present annually to the British Government one horse, twelve shawl goats of approved breed Appendix I 56. [14] Arthur Brinkman in his paper "The Wrongs of Cashmere" written in December 1867, also states he: "informs the reader of the wretched condition of a people we sold against their inclination, and their united cry to us." Treaty of Amritsar The state of Jammu and Kashmir as we know it today, came into being on 16 March 1846 when the TREATY OF AMRITSAR was signed between Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu and the East India Company. As part of the Treaty of Lahore, signed between the 7 year old Maharaja Duleep Singh (Sikh) (4 September 1838 – 22 October 1893) and the The treaty of Amritsar was signed after the Treaty of Lahore. [2], During First Anglo-Sikh War, Maharaja Gulab Singh Jamwal (Dogra) helped the British Empire against the Sikhs. Article 8 "[5][3][4][6][7][8][9][2][10][11][12][13] After which the Dogras served the British Empire in the Indian Rebellion and in the various wars. They promised that they will not interfere his affairs . Britannic Majesty's most Honorable Privy Council, Governor-General of the possessions of the East India In consideration of the transfer made to him and his heirs by the provisions of the foregoing article In fact, the misfortune of people of Jammu and Kashmir started on March 16, 1846 when the Treaty of Amritsar was signed. After weakened of Afghan rule in Kashmir in 1810 AD. Articles V, VI and VII of the separate Engagement between the British Government and the Lahore Maharajah Gulab Singh acknowledges the supremacy of the British Government and will in token of such Article 12 of the Treaty of Lahore stated: This failed, Singh invaded Malwa in September 1808 and in February 1809 the British successfully attacked Singh's forces there. Article 2 The protection was forthcoming and the British, who until recently had been occupied in Hindustan obtaining victory in the Second Anglo-Maratha War, attempted to resolve the issue using diplomacy. Formation of the state of Jammu and Kashmir The forces of … Treaty of Amritsar March 16, 1846 The treaty between the British Government on the one part and Maharajah Gulab Singh of Jammu on the other concluded on the part of the British Government by Frederick Currie, Esq. Constitution Act, 1934. Article 5 It was a pact between Charles T. Metcalfe and Maharaja Ranjit Singh[1]. Hon. Article 9 Ranjit Singh had established a capital at Lahore in 1799 when he defeated Zaman Shah , an Afghan leader. respectively for that purpose and shall be defined in a separate engagement after survey. Treaty of Amritsar and role of Gulab Singh All under-hand dealings were exposed when only seven days after the signing of the Treaty of Lahore (March 16, 1846), the Treaty of Amritsar was concluded which made Raja Gulab Singh, the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir. The eastern boundary of the tract transferred by the foregoing article to Maharajah Gulab Singh shall be Hon. Treaty of Amritsar, (April 25, 1809), pact concluded between Charles T. Metcalfe, representing the British East India Company, and Ranjit Singh, head of the Sikh kingdom of Punjab. By Sajjad Shaukat . Company, to direct and control all the affairs in the East Indies and by Maharajah Gulab Singh in person - Maharajah Gulab Singh engages for himself and heirs to join, with the whole of his Military Forces, the Sir Henry Hardinge, Governor-General. Article 1 Among the outcomes was that Singh gained a carte blanche to further consolidate his territorial gains north of the Sutlej river at the expense both of other Sikh chiefs and their peers among the other dominant communities. His widow was ousted and the estate attached without any resistance. Done at Amritsar the sixteenth day of March, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and Gulab Singh thus became the founder and first Maharaja of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K). It was a severe blow to the authority of the Sardars who were still dreaming of retaining their petty estates. [1] The Treaty of Amritsar marked the beginning of Dogra rule in Kashmir. Hon. Brown in his book The Gilgit Rebellion 1947. Treaty of Amritsar, 1809, an agreement between the British East India Company and Ranjit Singh, founder of the Sikh empire; Treaty of Amritsar, 1846, a treaty formalizing the arrangements in the Treaty of Lahore between the British East India Company and Maharaja Gulab Singh Dogra after the First Anglo-Sikh War Article 4 abide by the decision of the British Government. Lahore treaty signed in March 1846 A.D, a week before Bainama Amritsar provided the background to the black sale deed. Under Article 3, Gulab Singh was to pay 75 lakhs (7.5 million) of Nanak Shahi rupees (the ruling currency of the Sikh Empire) to the British Government, along with other annual tributes. Treaty of Amritsar March 16, 1846 The treaty between the British Government on the one part and Maharajah Gulab Singh of Jammu on the other concluded on the part of the British Government by Frederick Currie, Esq. The angry courtiers of Lahore (particularly the baptized Sikh, Lal Singh) then incited the governor of Kashmir to rebel against Gulab Singh, but this rebellion was defeated, thanks in great part to the action of Herbert Edwardes, Assistant Resident at Lahore. Hence 1.1 million Kasmiris now live in the UK. on the part of the British Government and by Maharajah Gulab Singh in person, and the said Treaty has Article 3 Article 1: The British government transfers and makes over, forever, independent possession, to Maharaja Gulab Singh, and the heirs male of his body, all the hilly or mountainous country, with its dependencies, situated to the eastward of the river Indus, and westward of the river Ravi, including Chamba and excluding Lahore, being part of the territory ceded to the British government by the Lahore state, … any European or American State without the consent of the British Government. Instrument of Accession of Jammu and Kashmir State. The treaty served to settle a territorial dispute arising from the First Anglo-Sikh War. [5][3][4][6][7][8][9][2][10][11][12][13] Hence a large percentage of the Kashmiris fought in the First World War and in the Second World Wars, as part of the Jammu and Kashmir State Forces and directly with the Royal Navy, The British Army, the merchant navy and Gilgit Scouts as mentioned by Major William A. of the British Government. IV c. 73) abolished slavery throughout the British Empire. Singh and the heirs male of his body all the hilly or mountainous country with its dependencies situated to and Brever-Major Henry Montgomery Lawrence, acting under the orders of the Rt. Maharaja Ranjit Singh was stronger than the rulers of these three separate states at that time. The Treaty of Amritsar, executed by the British East India Company and Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu after the First Anglo-Sikh War, established the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir under the suzerainty of the British Indian Empire. He proclaimed himself maharajah of Punjab.. By 1808 he had control of an area bounded by Gujarat, Ludhiana, and Multan. The Treaty of Amritsar followed the Treaty of Lahore. As the Lahore Government was unable to pay the whole of this sum immediately, it ceded some of the territories mentioned above, including Hazara and Kashmir, as equivalent to 10 million rupees (one crore). His widow was ousted and the estate attached without any resistance. The Treaty of Amritsar of 1809 was an agreement between the British East India Company and Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the Sikh leader who founded the Sikh empire. The British Government will give its aid to Maharajah Gulab Singh in protecting his territories from His widow was ousted and the estate attached without any resistance. and in exchange under Article 9 "The British Government will give its aid to Maharajah Gulab Singh in protecting his territories from external enemies. The Treaty of Lahore, which was signed on March 9, 1946, marked the end of the First Anglo-Sikh War, which was fought between the Sikh Empire and the East India Company between 1845 and 1846. It formalised the arrangements in the Treaty of Lahore between the British East India Company and Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu after the First Anglo-Sikh War. and Brever-Major Henry Montgomery Lawrence, acting under the orders of the Rt. [1] By Article 1 of the treaty, Gulab Singh acquired "all the hilly or mountainous country with its dependencies situated to the eastward of the River Indus and the westward of the River Ravi including Chamba and excluding Lahul, being part of the territories ceded to the British Government by the Lahore State according to the provisions of Article IV of the Treaty of Lahore, dated 9th March, 1846." Article 7 [5], To pay for this, from the very start the Kashmiris were heavily taxed and complained of being sold into slavery and extensive liturature was written by the British writers regarding these treaties. provisions of Article IV of the Treaty of Lahore, dated 9 March 1846. Honourable Sir Henry Hardinge, G.C.B., one of her Britannic Majesty's most Honorable Privy Council, Governor-General, … Sir Henry Hardinge, G.C.B., one of her Britannic Majesty's most Honorable Privy Council, … Treaty of Amritsar and role of Gulab Singh All under-hand dealings were exposed when only seven days after the signing of the Treaty of Lahore (March 16, 1846), the Treaty of Amritsar was concluded which made Raja Gulab Singh, the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir. (Nanukshahee), fifty lakhs to be paid on or before the 1st October of the current year, A.D., 1846. Arthur Brinkman was an Anglican Missionary and the Anglican Missionary Groups had worked with the Anti Slavery Society to push for The Slavery Abolition Act 1833 a few years earlier[15]. Among the outcomes was that Singh gained a carte blanche to further consolidate his territorial gains north of the Sutlej river at the expense both of other Sikh chiefs and their peers among the other dominant communities. The Kashmiris also rebelled throughout Jammu and Kashmir. Maharaja Ranjit Singh:The Treaty of Amritsar (British and Sarkar Khalsa) In 1807, Ranjit Singh had taken over the territory of Tara Singh Gheba, who had died earlier. [3][4][5][6][7][8][9][2][10][11][12][13] After the defeat of the Sikh Empire The Treaty of Lahore (9 March 1846) and the Treaty of Amritsar (1846) (16 March 1846) were signed. Maharajah Gulab Singh engages never to take to retain in his service any British subject nor the subject of The Treaty of Amritsar which was signed by Gulab Singh, Hardinge, Currie and Lawrence had common cause among the parties with the aim to end the Muslim rule in Jammu and Kashmir. Formation of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Following is the detailed treaty of Amritsar: The treaty between the British Government on the one part and Maharajah Gulab Singh of Jammu on the Hon. This enabled him to extract tribute from less powerful chieftains, including Jats and other Sikhs, and ultimately to gain control of areas such as Peshawar and Kashmir. Under the Treaty, British colonialists sold Kashmir alongwith its people to a Dogra Hindu, Gulab Singh for 7.5 million rupees. Sir Henry Hardinge, G.C.B., one of her Britannic Majesty's most Honorable Privy Council, Governor-General of the possessions of … The supplementary Articles of Agreement of 1846 had specified that the British troops would remain in Lahore until no later than the end of 1846. Lahol, being part of the territories ceded to the British Government by the Lahore State according to the The Treaty of Amritsar was a formalisation of the proposals of the Treaty of Lahore, signed to conclude the First Anglo-Sikh War of 1845-46 between the East India Company and the Sikh Empire. external enemies. 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