It feeds on a wide variety of conifers besides hemlock, including fir and spruce. The scale insect was unintentionally introduced into the United States from Japan. To date, forest infestations in the absence of planted trees have only been found in Kittery and Frye Island. Another product labeled for hemlocks in the landscape that appears to control scales well is Distance (pyriproxyfen). Many growers have gotten excellent scale control treating just with this one material during this time. Each female produces 12 to 16 eggs at a time which hatch within a month. Crawlers may move somewhere else on the same needle, crawl onto the new growth, or move passively through wind or bird movement onto other trees or fields. Translucent, oval eggs occur beneath the scale covering of the female. Quick Tips (PDF | 300 KB) Alternate name: Fiorinia scale, Abbreviated Name: EHS Hosts: Hemlock and fir are primary hosts.Spruce is also a common host. Elongate Hemlock Scale is an exotic scale insect that prefers hemlock, spruce and fir but will also feed on cedar, pine, and yew. Crawlers and immatures are yellow and are not elongated in shape. Cryptomeria scale on underside of needle. Elongate hemlock scale sometimes occurs with two other exotic pests - a circular hemlock scale, Nuculaspis tsugae (Marlatt), and the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand. Read our Recommendations for the use of agricultural chemicals are included in this publication as a convenience to the reader. It also can be found on fir, spruce and other conifers. A grower can mix another material with Dimethoate to also control balsam woolly adelgid if it is needed. An introduced Hemlock pest, the elongate hemlock scale (Fiorinia externa Ferris), which has been doing considerable damage to He… The elongate hemlock scale is in a group of insects called “armored scales”. Infestations of elongate hemlock scale on planted trees have been found from Kittery to Mount Desert. ELONGATE HEMLOCK SCALE Fiorinia externa . However, such symptoms are not commonly seen on Fraser fir in western North Carolina. They have no mouth parts and live only a few days, mating with females. It also has been introduced to Hawaii. [1] It is shiny black, and there is one red spot on each elytron. Cooperative Extension county center. It is beneficial against non native species. It is found from Massachusetts to Virginia and west to Ohio (Kosztarab 1996). If using oil, consider using an encapsulated oil which will cause fewer problems with burn. The feeding tube of the immatures is as long as it is, appearing as a tiny coppery wire that can be seen under a microscope if the scale is carefully pulled back away from the needle. Elongate hemlock scale (Fiorinia externa) has never been found in the environment of California and would likely have significant economic and environmental impacts if … Fertilization with nitrogen can increase populations of this armored scale. Hemlock scale crawlers create waxy secretions that build into a mass of tangled strands, giving the lower surface of infested needles a white appearance. Therefore, it is important to only use a pesticide when necessary, and to limit the use of these and other broad-spectrum products. Parasitized scales can be identified by the hole in an otherwise empty scale shell. Chilocorus stigma, commonly known as the twice-stabbed ladybug, is a native resident of the United States and Canada but does not live west of the Sierra Nevada. If they are, control was not adequate. The elongate hemlock scale, Fiorinia externa Ferris, native to Japan, is a pest of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis, and Carolina hemlock, T. caroliniana, in the Eastern United States. Elongate hemlock scale has become a problem in North America, where it sometimes occurs with two other exotic pests: the circular hemlock scale Nuculapsis tsugae , and the hemlock wooly adelgid Adelges tsugae . Elongate Hemlock Scale is a species of scale insects that is armored with a hard, waxy covering. The female scale is enveloped in a hard covering. Elongate hemlock scale is an armored scale, non-native to the United States and first observed in New York in 1908. EHS attacks the surface of the hemlock needle and sucks out the fluid. It has been found in the District of Columbia and in nine states from Virginia to southern New England and west to Ohio. As a systemic, Safari should last in the tree longer. N.C. Scales are usually found in a field during the summer and again in early fall when the males, and therefore the white cotton they produce, are most easily seen. In fact, at one time the EHS was considered to be “self-limiting.” In forest hemlocks, scale numbers seldom increased, primarily because natural controls obtained from the parasitic wasp, Encarsia citrina and other natural enemies. After several months, visually assessing scale mortality in the field becomes easier as the scales appear dried up though adult females may appear to be dead when they are in fact still alive. The best time to control scales is in the summer when crawlers are moving onto the new growth in June. The elongate hemlock scale (Fiorinia externa Ferris) (EHS) (Homoptera: Diaspididae) is a serious pest of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere and was first discovered in New York City in 1908 (Sasscer 1912). Horticultural oil is a lower toxicity material that consistently gives only 65 to 75% control. Cooperative Extension prohibits discrimination and harassment regardless of age, color, disability, family and marital status, gender identity, national origin, political beliefs, race, religion, sex (including pregnancy), sexual orientation and veteran status. Adult females are almost always immobile (apart from mealybugs) and permanently attached to the plant on which they are feeding. It is a beneficial insect, and is useful in both natural wood stands and commercial forests such as orchards and citrus groves. Scales can also be found when beating the foliage over a pan when scouting for other pests such as twig aphids. Insecticide applications by themselves will not give lost lasting control of scale. Since it feeds in epidermal tissue instead of vascular tissue, it is not as easily controlled by systemic insecticides. Of these, Safari and Talus have provided the most consistant and long lasting control. When infestations are heavy, trees may have yellow blotches or patches on the needles and growth will be stunted (Figure 1). Figure 2. Elongate hemlock scale, Fiorinia externaFerris (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), is an armored scale insect native to Japan and eastern Asia (Murakami 1970). Its use should not create subsequent problems with mites. Because these pests are not native, their presence on cut trees may limit where they can be shipped. Elongate hemlock scale is becoming a serious pest of hemlocks trees in the Greater Boston area. Cultural practices that enchance controls include have even-aged stands and not interplanting young trees with older trees, not over-fertilizing trees with nitrogen, culling the most heavily infested trees, and limiting the use of broad-spectrum insecticides in trees. Mga kasarigan. This pest may also be regulated, and trees must be scale-free to ship to other countries and to other states where the scale is not yet found. A&T State University. However, also consider how the materials used and when they are used will affect the parasitic wasp and other natural controls of scales and other pests such as mites. It is sometimes confused with the "two-stabbed lady beetle", Chilocorus orbus, which is widespread in California.[2]. It can be applied with a foliar spray, using 4 to 8 oz/100 gallons of water, or as a trunk application. Applications can be made with a backpack sprayer, but it is important to completely wet the base of the trunk fully around the tree. Elongate hemlock scale is an armored scale, non-native to the United States and first observed in New York in 1908. Although EHS is univoltine and reproduces sexually, its life Though commonly associated with hemlocks, EHS can feed on many species of conifers including firs, pines, spruces, cedars, and Douglas fir. They crawl to new spots on leaves and begin sucking plant sap and producing their own covers. If female, they will never move again. Crawlers, nymphs and males are easiest to control. This insect was first documented in the United States in 1908 in Queens, NY, and has since spread throughout most of the eastern United States. Elongate hemlock scale is found almost exclusively on the underside of conifer needles. In some instances treating two years in a row – in fall and again in the spring – are necessary to get complete control. With trunk applications, the base of the trunk is wetted all the way around so that the chemical systemically moves into all the foliage of the tree. Hemlock Woolly Adelgid is a small wingless insect which has piercing mouthparts to feed in the xylem of the small hemlock twigs. Elongate hemlock scale (EHS) is primarily found infesting eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) and Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana), along with fir and spruce in Massachusetts. Elongate Hemlock Scale Page 2 of 2 . However, if trees are going to be treated in the spring for twig aphids or other pests anyway, there is no reason not to try to control EHS as well. Mixed infestations of scales and adelgids can greatly hasten hemlock decline. Pest Alert -The elongate hemlock scale, Fiorinia externa Ferris, native to Japan, is a pest of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis, and Carolina hemlock, T. caroliniana, in the Eastern United States. Be sure workers that tag and shear trees are familiar with EHS appearance and will flag infested trees. [3] C. stigma is currently not a lady beetle that can be sold for commercial use in orchards or on farms. Other scale pests are infrequent problems. There is only a small, shield-like opening underneath for the feeding tube to be inserted into the needle, otherwise she is completely protected from the outside world. The EHS is found almost exclusively on the underside of needles. This invasi… Fiorinia externa, the elongate hemlock scale (EHS), is a diaspidid scale native to Japan (McClure 1978a), which invaded the eastern United States about 1907 (Davidson and McComb, 1958).It is now found on hemlock (Tsuga … Mature females may live for more than one year. The adult males have wings and legs and are mobile so they are able to mate with the immobile females. parts. Elongate hemlock scale outbreaks may increase after a tree has been infested with hemlock woolly adelgid, drought, or other stresses. C. stigma mainly lives within terrestrial/arboreal habitats, primarily feeding on aphids found in these habitats as well as scales (such as pine needle scale, beech bark scale and Florida red scale) and mealybugs. Elongate hemlock scale may also be observed on cedar, Douglas-fir, pine, and yew, which tend to grow adjacent to infested hemlocks. The white, waxy cover of the male is smaller. This insect is originally from Asia and was first discovered in Portsmouth in 2000. Though commonly associated with hemlocks, EHS can feed on many species of conifers including firs, pines, spruces, cedars, and Douglas fir. As the insects feed, t… The adult female's body beneath the waxy cover, eggs, and crawler stage are yellow. A third or more of scales will be dead naturally. Cryptomeria scales under microscope showing eggs. Elongate Hemlock Scale- Beyond Pest Control is a fast reliable pest control company, We've been in the business since 1971. N.C. In order to preserve the benefits of this insect, pesticide users are encouraged to use natural alternatives to pesticide in order to curb the decline of C. stigma. The June treatment will also control the balsam twig aphid for the following year. Use a high pressure sprayer, creating a fog that moves the materials under the needles. In western North Carolina, hemlocks and true firs including Fraser fir are its most common hosts. Elongate Hemlock Scale Trials 2009 Photo captions from left to right: Female scale flipped over to show small area, outlined in yellow, through which the scale feeds. Find more information at the following NC State Extension websites: Publication date: Oct. 1, 2016 Damage Elongate hemlock scales drive their fine, piercing-sucking mouthparts into needles to feed on sap from inner leaf… stigma. It is also occaissonlly found on blue spruce and blue atlas cedar, though seldom causes much damage. Elongate hemlock scale, sometimes known as the fiorinia scale, is a serious armored scale insect pest of hemlock, Tsuga spp., on ornamental and forest trees in Newyork. Though EHS is the most common scale problem, there are other scales found on Fraser fir. Adult females are soft-bodied, legless, wingless, and are enclosed in an elongate cover that is light yellow to brown, translucent, and about 2 mm long. ), firs (Abies sp. The crawlers must find an appropriate feeding site. Scouting. The pale yellow crawlers are about 1⁄250 inch (0.1 mm) long and have six short legs. Elongate hemlock scale may also be observed on cedar, Douglas-fir, pine, and yew, which tend to grow adjacent to infested hemlocks. Native to Japan, Elongate hemlock scale (EHS) is an armored scale insect targeting eastern and Carolina hemlocks. Elongate hemlock scale has become a problem in North America, where it sometimes occurs with two other exotic pests: the circular hemlock scale Nuculapsis tsugae , and the hemlock wooly adelgid Adelges tsugae . Pest populations build slowly in healthy trees and quickly in stressed ones. The insect damages hemlock needles by inserting needle-like mouth parts into leaf tissue and removing cell fluids. The females and eggs are protected by a hard, waxy covering. Elongate Hemlock Scale (Fiorinia externa Ferris) Fact Sheet. Elongate hemlock scale has a host range up to 40 species of conifers and prefers: hemlock, fir, and spruce. The flattened, elongate, light yellow brown to brownish orange waxy cover of the adult female is about 1.5 mm long. Male and female scales develop differently and have different protective coverings. Lifting up the foliage to look at the back sides of needles is helpful in identifying infested trees. NC State University and NC Figure 1. Because it controls on contact, thorough coverage is required. As aphid control results in the most insecticide use in Christmas trees, switching to products that are easier on natural controls such as Sivanto (flupyradifurone) or Neem oil will reduce the chance for scale numbers to build up. The yellow portion was the nymphal stage, and the mature scale developed behind it. The EHS can kill hemlock trees over time and works The elongate hemlock scale is an armored scale that can be a serious pest of hemlock (Tsuga spp.). Range in North America. This adult female has been flipped over and teased open to show several eggs. ELONGATE HEMLOCK SCALE (Fiorinia externa Ferris)Roy Van Driesche and Kris Abell, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, vandries@nre.umass.edu. This means that young scale insects, called “crawlers”, begin to hatch from eggs in May. Range in North America. Mistblower applications have not given consistent results in scale control, but their use has reduced the spread of scale to other uninfested trees in the field. Males emerge as a tiny winged insect with large black eyes and long antennas. Several other conifers are secondary hosts, although these are usually infested only in the presence of heavy scale populations on primary hosts. Figure 4. Scale insects vary dramatically in appearance, from very small organisms (1–2 mm) that grow beneath wax covers (some shaped like oysters, others like mussel shells), to shiny pearl-like objects (about 5 mm), to animals covered with mealy wax. This is also when rosette buds are being controlled, typically with Dimethoate. However, since 2000, the prevalence of this pest has continued to increase until it is now a common problem. Hosts: Elongate hemlock scale is known to develop and reproduce on 43 spe- commitment to diversity. Symptoms the host tree experiences include: Yellow spots developed on the upper surface of hemlock needles Talus only has activity on the immature scales, preventing them from molting into the adults. This adult female has been flipped over to show the shield-like area through which the scale feeds. Cultural controls. This is much easier if trees are butt-pruned. Scales will be found on multiple years of growth. Elongate Hemlock Scale is an exotic scale insect that prefers hemlock, spruce and fir but will also feed on cedar, pine, and yew. Adult male scales only have one pair o… Thought to have been first introduced into the US in New York City in 1908, the scale was slow to spread until the mid-1970s when it greatly expanded its invaded range and is now reported in more than 14 states in the eastern US and as far south as Georgia. Through the 1990s, scales were sometimes observed, but were seldom a problem. Remember that scales will be on 3 or 4 years of growth, so it is important that all the needles are covered. A month after application it requires examination under a microscope to determine if individuals are still alive. Figure 5. With the other products, to avoid label restrictions for flowering plants during application, consider using low rates of Roundup to stunt weeds and stop flowering in ground covers one to two weeks prior to making insecticide applications for EHS control. It has been found in the District of Columbia and in nine states from … Controls made in the summer or fall with Dimethoate mixed with a synthetic pyrethroid have also been successful. An introduced Hemlock pest, the elongate hemlock scale (Fiorinia externa Ferris), which has been doing considerable damage to Hemlock trees throughout North America, can be moderately controlled by the presence of C. stigma. Elongate hemlock scale, Fiorinia externa Ferris, an invasive scale in the USA, is native to Japan and China that is a pest of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis [L.] Carrière) in the eastern United States. Mixed infestations of scales and adelgids can greatly hasten hemlock decline. of which several species are native to the United States. In Maryland, this scale insect has two generations each year. These treatments will also control balsam woolly adelgid. The elongate hemlock scale (Fiorinia externa), is an introduced pest from Asia. Bait treatments and insecticides can be used to control ants in the outside nest. The white cotton produced by the males appears on foliage in the summer. Indians. Fiorinia externa, the elongate hemlock scale (EHS), is a diaspidid scale native to Japan (McClure 1978a), which invaded the eastern United States about 1907 (Davidson and McComb, 1958).It is now found on hemlock (Tsuga … Damage Elongate hemlock scales drive their fine, piercing-sucking mouthparts into needles to feed on sap from inner leaf… An “A”-rating is justified. The remainder of the body is black as well, but the abdomen is either yellow or red. It takes about 16 weeks to go from a crawler through development to a new generation of crawlers being produced. The EHS as its name implies is longer than it is wide. The elongate hemlock scale is an armored scale that can be a serious pest of hemlock (Tsuga spp.). Male elonagate hemlock scales produce a white, fluffy covering which can bee seen on the needles and may affect sales. Elongate hemlock scale (EHS)— Fiorinia externa Ferris, is a serious exotic pest of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). Because of this the best control with foliar applied insecticides is during this time period. Once a feeding site is found they molt. When they settle to feed, the crawlers lose their legs and excrete an amber-colored, oval covering. Because of this overlap, all life stages can be found almost any time of year, though the proportion of one stage to another will vary. Crawlers have six legs and two tiny eyes. C. stigma usually completes two lifecycles a year in Canada and the North United States but may complete several lifecycles a year further down South. Talus also has the least impact on the parasitic wasp. Waray hini subspecies nga nakalista. More commonly what is seen are the white, waxy excretions of the male scales found on the upper surface of needles especially during summer months when males are maturing (Figure 2). Hosts: Elongate hemlock scale is known to develop and reproduce on 43 spe- ELONGATE HEMLOCK SCALE (Fiorinia externa Ferris)Roy Van Driesche and Kris Abell, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, vandries@nre.umass.edu. This publication printed on: Dec. 26, 2020, Skip to Cryptomeria Scale and Other Scales of Fraser Fir, NC Damage symptoms include yellow stippling or banding on the needles, overall needle yellowing, and needle loss. Infestations can also develop on over 40 species of native and exotic conifers, including Douglas fir, pine, and yew. There are two generations per year with peak crawler production in June and again in August. To date, these have not been at a high enough density in trees to warrant control measures, but their presence can be of regulatory concern when shipping to other areas. It damages trees by feeding on the undersides of their needles, sapping … Also note the crawler emerging at the far end. The males are white and females brown. Distinctive rounded, white ovisacs of hemlock woolly adelgid are found at the base of hemlock needles. Scout before treatment to determine the prevalence of the immature nymphs. Materials that control EHS include the neonicotinoid, Safari (dinotefuran), the insect growth regulator Talus (buprofezin), and mixtures of the organophosphate Dimethoate with a synthetic pyreroid such as Asana (esfenvalerate) or a bifenthrin product such as Sniper (bifenthrin). Tree heavily infested with Cryptomeria scale. However, in some instances, scales have caused little trouble. [citation needed]. Elongate hemlock scale was found as far south as Georgia by the late 1970s (Stimmel 1979) but has not been documented in Florida (Figure 1). For assistance, contact your local N.C. Control with Safari may take 4 months or longer. 2005). In most fields, scale incidence will continue to increase over time. Eggs are produced six to eight weeks after mating. Receive Email Notifications for New Publications. Though products like Dimethoate and synthetic pyrethroids may kill scales, they may also make them worse because of the effect on natural controls. 53.0 53.1; Mga sumpay ha gawas It may also be found in cedar, Douglas fir, pine, and yew when those plants are grown nearby an infested hemlock. The waxy covering of the needle can be seen covering this adult female. ), and spruce (Picea sp.) Both are introduced pests and armored scales which make them harder to control. It is very probable that elongate hemlock scale is established in Maine's forests outside of these areas. Elongate hemlock scaleis a common pest of the Eastern hemlock. If trees are treated before bud break, waiting to as close to bud break as possible will increase efficacy. There are other predators of EHS including various lady beetles, brown lacewings, and dusty wings. There are several scale pests of Fraser fir in western North Carolina, elongate hemlock scale (EHS) and Cryptomeria scale being the major problems. 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