It should be noted that functionalists see deviance as an inevitable and necessary part of society. Individualism … -is a consensus structuralist theory, which sees the source of crime & deviance located in the structure of society. (30marks) Functionalists see society as based on value consensus. As well, people strongly disagree with the stance that crime is beneficial for society. Illegitimate opportunity structures are the rules that operate within deviant subcultures. Conversely, being marked as deviant can actual bolster solidarity within the marked community, as members take pride and ownership in their stigmatized identity and create cohesive units of their own (for example, members of the LGBT community unifying around Pride). FUNCTIONALISM, CRIME & DEVAINCE Functionalists see Crime & Deviance as: Disrupting social stability Functionalists see crime as inevitable and even beneficial. Haralambos and Holborn: sociology themes and perspectives, edition 8. Social strain theory was developed by famed American sociologist Robert K. Merton. Functionalist perspective of crime – revision notes Durkheim (1893) is the main sociologist in functionalism and believed that society is a stable system based on value consensus. Functionalists focus on the source of deviance in the nature of society instead of biological and mental explanations. Durkheim theorized crime was inevitable because not every member of society can be equally committed to the collective sentiments (the shared values and moral beliefs of society). Sociologists who follow the functionalist approach are concerned with the way the different elements of a society contribute to the whole. In a retreatist subculture youth learn to reject both legitimate and illegitimate opportunity structures. Illegitimate opportunity structures are the rules that operate within deviant subcultures. Evaluate the usefulness of functionalist approaches in understanding crime and deviance. Deviance provides the key to understanding the disruption and recalibration of society that occurs over time. [21 marks] This essay will detail the functionalist perspective of crime and deviance.Functionalist theories began to emerge after the industrial revolution in the 18th century. Some traits will be stigmatized and can potentially cause social disruption. This period was called the enlightenment, and brought about scientific belief as opposed to the feudalist beliefs of religion. They view deviance as a key component of a functioning society. This approach frames deviant behavior and crime as the result of social, political, economic, and material conflicts in society. Durkhiem went a step further and argued that a certain amount of crime was functional for society. Structural functionalism has its roots in the very origins of sociological thought and the development of sociology as a discipline. Crime as Inevitable • Durkheim argued that crime is an inevitable and normal aspect of social life. In this work, they noted that the individuals who achieved social norms by deviant means frequently operated from within institutions that, similarly to those operating in normative institutions, had rules of behavior. He theorizes that crime is necessary and even functional but fails to distinguish between different types of crime. He pointed out that crime is inevitable in all societies, and that the crime rate was in fact higher in more advanced, industrial societies. Functionalist Theories www.sociology.org.uk Sociology Central www.sociology.org.uk Crime and Deviance 2. Some traits that could cause social disruption will be stigmatized. That operate within deviant subcultures paralleled the rules that operate within deviant subcultures - groups whose are... Populations and enable an “ us-versus-them ” mentality within the two categories, are. 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