We crossed on it last Sunday and found that less than half the distance over sand has to be traveled. The city of Wichita, KS, has closed the Arkansas River the day before the Riverfest, or River Festival, as the flooded river in Kansas has dangerous … H.B. A section of the Arkansas River in Sedgwick County, Kansas. The stream is the greatest western affluent of the Missouri-Mississippi system, and its length is variously given as 1,477 miles by the Weather Bureau, and approximately 2,000 miles by the encyclopedias. Tributaries include the Cimarron River (flowing from northeastern New Mexico) and the Salt Fork Arkansas River. There was also a growing feeling that the portion of the bridge on the Bolton side was not safe. After leaving that county it takes a southerly course for about seventy miles, makes a turn to the east, through the celebrated Royal Gorge, then flows on and across the Great Plains region. During the late 1870’s it was not always an easy matter to sell surplus crops; the railroad was too far away, and the river afforded the most convenient route to a market, so ferry-boats were utilized for conveying such crops. Great river walk along the Arkansas River in Canon City. The Arkansas River is one of the longest rivers in the country, starting near Leadville, Colorado, and flowing nearly 1,469 miles through four states to its confluence with the Mississippi River in eastern Arkansas. To cite this article click here for a list of acceptable citing formats.The history of earlier contributions by wikipedians is accessible to researchers here: The history of this article since it was imported to New World Encyclopedia: Note: Some restrictions may apply to use of individual images which are separately licensed. Three friends take a slow raft down the Arkansas River to the Mississippi. Important cities along the Arkansas include Pueblo, Colorado; Wichita, Kansas; Tulsa, Oklahoma; Fort Smith and Little Rock, Arkansas. Encyclopedia Britannica v. 2, p. 371. Doctor Trichen, of Wichita, was in command of the boat and was moving his entire stock of drugs from the railroad terminus in Sedgwick county to Fort Smith, Ark. Plumb, C.V. Eskridge and L.B. A short time later the water again disappeared, and reappearing just before the paper went to press caused the scribe to record an item to the effect that "The Arkansas wet its bed again last night." Early Ferries Along the Arkansas River One of the expedition’s members called the stream the "River of Quivera." New World Encyclopedia writers and editors rewrote and completed the Wikipedia article Over the last 10 million years, the river has flowed into the state from high in the Rockies, where its source is fed by runoff from rain and snowmelt. The Ponca trail, Mr. Moore says, went south on the one half mile section line through sections 1, 12 and 13 to the Indian territory. General description We put this video together to raise interest in Kansas outdoor opportunities. Miles and miles of canals and ditches were constructed between the 100th meridian and the Colorado line. Nov. 15, 1996 Problems documented with Arkansas River BY REX BUCHANAN. Standard jumbo barges, measuring 35 by 195 feet (59 m), are grouped 3 wide by 3 long, with a tug at center rear, to form a barge packet which can be fit into a lock. The Arkansas has three distinct characters in its long path through central North America. Through the rest of Colorado, through Kansas, and through northern Oklahoma to Tulsa, it is a typical Great Plains riverway, with wide shallow banks, subject to seasonal flooding.  More than likely this company never functioned, as no further history been located. The name "Arkansas" was first applied by Father Jacques Marquette, who called the river Akansa in his journal of 1673. Later, the Santa Fe Trail followed the Arkansas through much of Kansas except for the Cimarron Cutoff from Cimarron, Kansas to Cimarron, New Mexico via Cimarron County, Oklahoma along the Cimarron River. According to Mrs. E.A. . The announcement as published in the local paper was as follows. No river recreation articles in the KANSAS Magazine 3. -- Abstract of evidence, pp. There also appears to be a difference of opinion as to who operated the first ferry. It was not an uncommon occurrence to arrive at a ferry and find a large number of teams and outfits awaiting their turn to be crossed. A 3.25 inch long female Dobsonfly. Larger barge packets must be broken down and passed through the lock in sections, and rejoined on the opposite side. He was known as 'Peg Leg Davis' because he had a peg leg. The river was first sighted by the Spaniards accompanying the expedition on June 29, 1541. Many nations of Native Americans lived near or along the Arkansas in its 1450 mile (2334 km) stretch, but the first Europeans to see the river were members of the Coronado expedition on June 29, 1541. Another instance of the scarcity of water in the channel occurred during the past two decades, when the city of Hutchinson made an appropriation to cover the expense of sprinkling the bed of the river for the purpose of keeping down the dust. Water Supply and Irrigation Papers, No. Mexicans called it the "Rio Napete." (75 m to 90 m), Bridge clearance: 300 ft. horizontal (90 m) 52 ft. vertical (15.6 m). NOTES 8. The horses went down almost out of sight, and the wagon sank until the woman’s head was all that was out of the water. The following could almost be classed among the "believe it or not" items so frequently found in papers of today: "A stranger drove on the ferryboat last week with a wagon and a woman sitting in the bottom of it. It flows trough the US states of Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas. The I-40 Bridge Disaster of May 2002 took place on I-40's crossing of the Arkansas River near Webbers Falls, Oklahoma. Herald as authority, said that "the Arkansas river was so low above that place last week that a drove of cows stopping to drink in it, drank the river in two." Wonder no more.  It was projected by Speers and Walton. The next lot, one whole span, was found on an island near Mr. Myers’ in good condition. The boys were all loose and not in condition to work." Just where this ferry was located has not been learned, other than it was at Denton’s ford. In Kansas, the Arkansas River is pronounced “Ar-Kansas,” and is sometimes shortened to the “Ark River.” The states of Kansas and Colorado have a long history of disagreement concerning the Arkansas River (pronounced ar-KAN'-sas river in Kansas), arguing before the Supreme Court of the United States on three previous occasions, 1902, 1907, and 1943. The influence of the floods in the river upon the ground-water level does not extend one half mile north or south of the channel. After the building of the first bridge, the ferry south of town was moved up the river to a location immediately west of town. The states of Kansas and Colorado have a long history of disagreement concerning the Arkansas River (pronounced ar-KAN'-sas river in Kansas), arguing before the Supreme Court of the United Stateson three previous occasions, 1902, 1907, and 1943. The first barge to reach the Port of Catoosa arrived in early 1971. The Arkansas River is a major tributary of the Mississippi River. The Arkansas River in August 1995 during a rare period when it flowed completely throughout the state, the first time in seven years. Weather Bureau, and from 185,000 to 188,000 square miles by standard encyclopedias,  this being greater than the area drained by the upper Mississippi. Kansas v. Colorado refers to a number of cases heard by the Supreme Court of the United States: In 1994, the Special Master issued his first report, which recommended that the Court find Colorado in violation of the Compact in certain respects. William Delisle, on his map of 1700, called it the "Acansa." It is divided into three sections: the first section flows rapidly through the Rocky Mountains; the second section slows down and widens out through the Great Plains; and the third secti… Arkansas River, large tributary of the Mississippi River, rising in the Sawatch Range of the Rocky Mountains near Leadville in central Colorado, U.S., and flowing generally east-southeastward for 1,460 miles (2,350 km) through Kansas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas before entering the Mississippi 40 miles The ferries at this time were well patronized. Native Americans hunted along its length, early explorers followed it westward, and from 1820 to 1846, it served as the boundary between the United States and Mexico. "Jacob Parr will cross parties over the Arkansas at Denton’s ford in a small boat for five cents each.  No further mention of this is found this year than a laconic item in the issue of December 26, which stated that "the new ferry west of town floats like a swan." The lakes and reservoirs in Kansas are located in two major river basins—the Missouri River Basin and the Arkansas River Basin. It enters the Mississippi at Napoleon, Arkansas 40 miles (64 km) northeast of Arkansas City, Arkansas. Along the section of the Arkansas River that carries the McClellan-Kerr channel, the river sustains commercial barge traffic and offers passenger and recreational use, and is considered by some, a series of reservoirs. Wife, Sophia Davis, 38; native of Ohio. About this time William H. Speers, mill operator, inaugurated a temporary free service, announcing that he "has a new boat and is carrying all parties with grists for his mill free of charge across the Arkansas." This appellation may have been applied to the river by Marshall M. Murdock, founder of the Wichita Eagle, who many years ago wrote a classic under that title which has been widely read and copied. Morton, G.H. 12. 42. On the Fourth of July this year the boat was tied up at the west ferry landing with five tons of chattels. Kansas Historical Collections, v. 12, p. 223. Arkansas River from Coolidge, Kansas to Syracuse; about 20 river miles. Fully one half of the missing part was found, and information gained that one span and a half had lodged near the Kaw agency. There were many Indians in the vicinity during those early days, but very few made use of the ferry, and then not very frequently, as Mr. Davis would not trust them. 34. Though it primarily follows the Arkansas River, it also follows portions of the Verdigris River in Oklahoma and the White River in Arkansas. The rope has been sent for and the boat is building, so that before many days the ferry will be running." Then if Boone Hartsock was not a religious man the language of the boatman might be obnoxious." "Amsley Davis, an old veteran who had taken a claim right by the approach of the bridge was given the job as toll-keeper. No private books or major private publications, i. Kansas State Board of Agriculture, First Biennial Report, 1877-1878, p. 159. It was finally opened about the middle of September, 1878, about fifteen months after being wrecked by the flood. Ferries on the river north of the Oklahoma-Kansas line, with possibly one or two exceptions, do not antedate the establishment of towns in Cowley county about the year 1870. The source basin of the Arkansas River is found in the Arkansas River Valley, Colorado. by George A. Root Each lock measures 110 feet (34 m) wide and 600 feet (180 m) long, the standard size for much of the Mississippi River waterway. ", The Arkansas river rises in central Colorado, in a pocket of peaks in Lake county, near present Leadville, at an altitude of 10,000 feet. . Arkansas City Traveler, April 6, July 12, 1876. Emanuel Bowen’s map of 1752 lists it as the "Rio des Acansas."  This ferry apparently was sponsored by the city and was to be a free ferry, and in getting it in shape to operate, volunteer help was solicited, as the following would indicate: "Our neighbor merchant came into the office yesterday and demanded that we supply some of our loose men to help fix the ferry.  Another notice regarding the ferry, evidently for the benefit of patrons living on the opposite side of the river, read: "Free ferry on the Arkansas at this place. Ordinarily the river receives but little water from its tributaries, except in times of flood. Lowest stages of water in the river occur from August to December. Fred C. DeMott, president of the Union State Bank, of Arkansas City, and a resident of that city for sixty-five years, in a letter to the author states that there was no way to cross the river until the bridge was built by subscription and opened as a toll bridge.  Two weeks later the same authority stated that "arrangements have been about completed to place another ferry west of town." A major tributary of the Mississippi River, the Arkansas River generally flows to the east and southeast, through the states of Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas.At 1,469 miles long, it is the sixth longest river in the United States and the second-longest tributary in the Mississippi-Missouri system. , High water late in 1879 or early in 1880 must have put the bridge at this location out of commission and necessitated the use of the ferry for a time. To allow for navigation, construction was begun in 1971 on a system of channels and locks to connect the many reservoirs along the length of the Arkansas River. This move evidently met with some popular approval and the local paper commented that it was much easier to get at, and added further: "Since the ferry has been moved from the west to the south of town, many persons, especially those of East Bolton, express themselves well pleased. They will also convey them across the river in a boat. Manning, P.B. The McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System is part of the inland waterway system originating at the Tulsa Port of Catoosa and running southeast through Oklahoma and Arkansas to the Mississippi River. Low water was not unheard of even in the lower reaches of the river, for the Junction City Union, of November 9, 1867, citing the Fort Smith (Ark.) Read more here: http://www.kansas.com/sports/outdoors/article25075381.html Early in March, 1878, Bolton township voted $2,000 in bonds to be used toward rehabilitating the old bridge, and a contract was let. ", Down the river there was always a good market for surplus grain, flour, produce, etc. The National park service has officially announced that a portion of the Arkansas river is designated as a National Water trail. Transactions of Kansas Academy of Science, v. 14, p. 113. Manning, P.B. 4. On January 8, 1870, the Arkansas River Ferry Co. received a charter from the state of Kansas for a ferry near the town of Delphi, and in the vicinity of the mouth of the Walnut river-- about two miles above it and south of the town. He helped organize the Eleventh Kansas cavalry, and became its lieutenant colonel.  By early May about half the piles had been driven and work on the spans had commenced. trip the next morning the boat made the distance from Salt City to Arkansas City, seven miles, in three quarters of an hour. He held many positions of trust in the state and county and was one of Kansas' United States senators from 1877 up to the time of his death on December 20, 1891. This trail led to the southwest and was used as a freight route and stage line to Hunnewell and Caldwell, and like all other trails branched south and west. While the lower portion of the river is navigable as far as Fort Smith, early writers had stated that the head of navigation on the stream was twenty-four miles below old Fort Mann, this being about south of present Kinsley, in Edwards county. The river is 1469 miles long. Above Tulsa, it is navigable only by small craft such as rafts, canoes, and kayaks. At a meeting of the city council on July 2, 1877, an order was issued to pay $250 for the ferryboat west of town and to convert it into a free ferry. The first such trail named in the state of Kansas. - 300 ft (91 m). (pronounced ar-kansas) If the river had continued its path from Ford on to the east instead of its real path to the northeast, it would have bi-passed the present day Wichita location. . Kellogg. ( [ ] see notes at bottom of page ), No earlier mention of the Arkansas river has been found than that in narratives of the Coronado expedition of 1540-1541. This being the day of St. Peter and St. Paul, the name was given the river. He served in both branches of the legislature, and was a president of the Kansas State Historical Society. Single crossing on horseback, two and one half cents. On the island at the mouth of the Walnut he found one bottom cord and part of the flooring lodged in the trees. Lumber for the boat and a cable to stretch across the river had been ordered. The Arkansas River is the second longest river in the state of Arkansas, and the sixth longest in the United States. Following the disastrous flood of May 27, 1877, which swept away all the bridges in the county, the only action taken was to call an election to be held on August 18, following, for the purpose of voting bonds for building and repairing the bridges on the Arkansas. eval(ez_write_tag([[336,280],'newworldencyclopedia_org-medrectangle-4','ezslot_2',162,'0','0'])); The Arkansas River has three distinct sections in its long path through the central United States. Up to the early 1880’s there was always an abundance of water in the river, and the channel, even down to the ever-flowing Little Arkansas, near Wichita, was usually filled. The incorporators of this company were H.B. This was no doubt followed by a shortage of water in the channel, for the local paper said: "The ferry west of town at the present stage of water has assumed more the shape of a bridge than a boat, since it spans the channel from shore to shore." Water flow in the Arkansas River (as measured in central Kansas) has dropped from approximately 248 cubic feet per second (7 m³/s) average from 1944-1963 to 53 cubic feet per second (1.5 m³/s) average from 1984-2003, largely because of the pumping of groundwater for irrigation in eastern Colorado and western Kansas.  Midsummer brought good rains to the west and the Arkansas went "on a bender," rendering fords useless and ferries somewhat bothersome. James R. Mead, "A Dying River" in Transactions of Kansas Academy of Science, v. 14, p. 113. He has a team that can be hired for $2 per day, and will run it two days a week, hauling passengers to town, and charging only enough to make the required two dollars." Probably this underflow was first noticed in June, 1860, the year of the great trans-Mississippi drought. These usually occur in the spring, when the snows of the mountains begin to melt and spring rains set in.  The Traveler continued its fight until a new bridge was built. A.A. Davis, known as "Peg Leg" Davis, was the operator, being assisted by his son, Adley, a lad in his teens. The underflow has its origin in the rainfall on the sand hills to the south of the river and on the bottom lands and plains north of the river. Within the next six weeks a force was at work and it was thought that within sixty days teams would be crossing. Tributaries include the Canadian River and the Cimarron River, both flowing from northeastern New Mexico, and the Salt Fork Arkansas River. In August, 1879, the township trustee published a warning that the bridge was unsafe for heavily loaded wagons, and that any wagons carrying two tons must cross at their own risk. 1. Arnott to Bert Moore, January 10, 1936. It continues to play an important role in the central states, feeding that region's important farmlands. The territory name combined with the unique "Arc" in the river gave it the name Arkansas. The name "Arkansas" was first applied by Father Jacques Marquette, who called the river Akansa in his journal of 1673. The ferry was to be free to anyone during that time. About this time Jacob Parr started a ferry across the Arkansas. This case was fought through the United States courts, but was decided against Kansas. Since then, the Master has issued three more reports and the states have filed various objections, most of which the Court has dismissed. The first ferry encountered after crossing the boundary line was probably near Delphi, now Arkansas City. Lacking opportunity to consult commissioners’ journals or early Cowley county newspapers, we are unable to give all dates when floods caused damage. This measure carried, but up to late in November nothing definite had been decided on. The lumber arrived on June 20, and as all necessary arrangements had been completed, the ferry was expected to be in running order very shortly. The Arkansas River is quite shallow through Arkansas and Oklahoma, and was naturally incapable of supporting river traffic though most of the year. After leaving Lake county, Colorado, the river flows through Fremont, Pueblo, Otero, Bent and Prowers counties before it leaves that state, and enters Kansas near Coolidge, in Hamilton county. The Arkansas River travels about 1,469 miles from its origin near Leadville, Colorado, through Kansas and Oklahoma to its confluence with the Mississippi River at Napoleon, Arkansas. The river originates in Colorado and runs through Kansas and Oklahoma before reaching Arkansas. Windswept sand dunes south of the Arkansas River in Kearny County. Laws, 1871, p. 221. Below Tulsa, and continuing to its mouth, the river is navigable by barges and large river craft thanks to a series of dams that turn it into reservoirs.  The principal office of the company was to be located at or in the vicinity of Delphi. According to county commissioners’ records, the first ferry license for the Arkansas river within Cowley county was issued April 11, 1871, to W.H. Laws, 1871, p. 432.  Principal cities along its route are Pueblo, Colorado; Wichita, Kansas; Tulsa, Oklahoma; and Fort Smith and Little Rock, Arkansas. It was thought, however, that within two more weeks the ferry could be dispensed with. 153, p. 5. Many trails branched from it leading to Indian agencies, cow camps and soldiers' camps. The first section, running to Little Rock, Arkansas, opened in 1968. Arkansas City Traveler, April 8, 1878. In that portion of Colorado east of the Rocky Mountains and in Kansas, the course of the Arkansas is through gently rolling sandy soil, the bed of the river making up in width what it lacks in depth -- in some places being about a mile wide. New bridge was lying at the mouth of the channel they remained until morning, compelling many the! 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